1891, Peru (Republic). Large Silver Sol Crown Coin.
Mint Year: 1891
Mint Place: Lima
Material: Silver (.900)
Obverse: Togate personification of the Republic seated beneath wreath ona column, holding stick topped by liberty cap, and leaning on shield.
Comment: Inscribed band ("LIBER-TAD") around column.
Legend: FIRME Y FELIZ POR LA UNION – UN SOL
Reverse: Wreath above shield with coat-of-arms of the Republic of Peru. All within sprays . Date below.
Legend: REPUBLICA PERUANA LIMA 9 DECIMOS FINO T.D. - 1891
In the early 19th century, while most of South America was swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. As the elite hesitated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the military campaigns of JosÃƒÂ© de San MartÃƒÂ­n and SimÃƒÂ³n BolÃƒÂ­var. During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability.National identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation foundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral. Between the 1840s and 1860s, Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of RamÃƒÂ³n Castilla through increased state revenues from guano exports. However, by the 1870s, these resources had been squandered, the country was heavily indebted, and political in-fighting was again on the rise.