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1869, Kingdom of Bavaria, Ludwig II.  Silver Madonna Thaler Coin. Damaged F+

Mint Year: 1869 Mint Place: Munich References: KM-877. Condition: Removed suspension loop, smoothed surfaces, otherwise F+ Weight: 18.33gm  Diameter: 33mm Material: Silver

Obverse: Bust of King  Louis II (Ludwig II) of Bavaria right. Legend: LVDOVICVS II BAVARIAE REX Exergue: C.VOIGT (engraver´s signnature)   Reverse: Crowned Virgin Mary (Madonna) with child, orb and scepter, stepped on crescent and seated in clouds.  Date (18-69) split below. Legend: PATRONA BAVARIAE

The Kingdom of Bavaria was a German state that existed from 1806–1918. Elector Maximilian I Joseph of the House of Wittelsbach became the first King of Bavaria in 1806. The monarchy would remain  held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom's dissolution in 1918. Most  of Bavaria's modern-day borders were established after 1814 with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and parts of Hesse-Darmstadt. As a state within the German Empire, the kingdom was second in size only to the Kingdom of Prussia. Since the unification of Germany in 1871, Bavaria has remained part of Germany to the present day.

Ludwig II (Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm; sometimes rendered as Louis II in English) (August 25, 1845 – June 13, 1886) was king of Bavaria from 1864 until shortly before his death. He is sometimes referred to as the Swan King in English and der Märchenkönig (the Fairy tale King) in German.

Ludwig is sometimes referred to as Mad King Ludwig, though the  accuracy of that label has been disputed. Because Ludwig was deposed on  grounds of mental illness without any medical examination, and died a  day later under mysterious circumstances, questions about the medical  "diagnosis" remain controversial.

Ludwig is best known as an eccentric whose legacy is intertwined  with the history of art and architecture, as he commissioned the  construction of several extravagant fantasy castles (the most famous  being Neuschwanstein) and was a devoted patron of the composer Richard Wagner.

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